In the “Paparoa National Park Management Plan

Appendix 1

Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998 – relating to Paparoa National Park

Protocols on the Department of Conservation's interaction with Ngāi Tahu on specified issues (Clause 12.12, Deed of Settlement, 1997).

Notification of the issue of Protocols

Under Section 282 (4) of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998 the Minister of Conservation hereby notifies that she has issued Protocols on behalf of the Crown regarding the Department of Conservation's interaction with Ngāi Tahu on specified issues, and that the Protocols as set out in the Schedule hereto were issued on 22 October 1998.

Schedule

1 Introduction

1.1 The purpose of the Conservation Act 1987 is to manage natural and historic resources under that Act and the Acts in the First Schedule of the Conservation Act. Section 4 of the Conservation Act requires that the Act be so interpreted and administered as to give effect to the principles of the Treaty of Waitangi.

1.2 The Director-General has certain management responsibilities in terms of legislation and can only delegate or share responsibility for decisions s/he makes within the limits of his/her legislation. However, in making such decisions, the Director-General will provide Te Rūnanga the opportunity for input, consistent with section 4, in its policy, planning and decision-making processes on the matters set out in these Protocols.

1.3 These Protocols apply across the Ngāi Tahu Takiwā, which spans five conservancies, and the Southern and Central Regional Offices of the Department.

1.4 Both the Department and Te Rūnanga are seeking a relationship consistent with the Treaty principle of partnership that achieves, over time, the conservation policies, actions and outcomes sought by both Te Rūnanga and the Department, as set out in this document.

2 Purpose of Protocols

2.1 These Protocols are issued pursuant to section 282 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998 and clause 12.12 of the 1997 Deed of Settlement between the Crown and Ngāi Tahu, which specifies the following:

2.1.1 Definitions

Protocol means a statement in writing, issued by the Crown through the Minister of Conservation to Te Rūnanga, which sets out:

  1. how the Department of Conservation will exercise its functions, powers, and duties in relation to specified matters within the Ngāi Tahu Claim Area; and
  2. how the Department of Conservation will, on a continuing basis, interact with
    Te Rūnanga and provide for Te Rūnanga's input into its decision-making process.
2.1.2 Authority to issue, amend or cancel Protocols

Pursuant to section 282 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, the Minister of Conservation may, from time to time issue, amend, and cancel Protocols.

2.1.3 Issue of Protocols

On the Settlement Date (as defined in section 8 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998) the Crown has agreed through the Minister of Conservation to issue Protocols in this form on the following matters:

  1. cultural materials;
  2. freshwater fisheries;
  3. culling of species of interest to Ngāi Tahu;
  4. historic resources;
  5. Resource Management Act 1991 involvement; and
  6. visitor and public information.
2.1.4 Protocols subject to Crown obligations

Pursuant to section 283 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, the Protocols are issued and amended, subject to, and without restriction upon:

  1. the obligations of the Minister of Conservation and the Department of Conservation to discharge their respective functions, powers, and duties in accordance with existing law and Government policy from time to time; and
  2. the Crown's powers to amend policy, and introduce legislation amending existing law.

This clause is not intended to indicate, and should not be interpreted as indicating, any agreement by Te Rūnanga to any amendment to policy which would adversely affect the redress provided by the Crown pursuant to the Settlement Deed or the ability of either party to fulfil its obligations expressed in the Settlement Deed.

2.1.5 Noting of Protocols on conservation management strategies

Pursuant to section 284 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998:

  1. The existence of Protocols, once issued, and as amended from time to time, including a definition of Protocols as set out in section 281 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998 and a summary of the terms of issue of Protocols, must be noted in conservation management strategies, conservation management plans and national park management plans affecting the Ngāi Tahu Claim Area; and
  2. Noting of Protocols pursuant to section 284(1) of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998 is for the purpose of public notice only and is not an amendment to the relevant strategies or plans for the purposes of section 17I of the Conservation Act 1987 or section 46 of the National Parks Act 1980.
2.1.6 Enforceability of Protocols

Pursuant to section 285 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998:

  1. The Minister of Conservation must comply with a Protocol as long as it remains in force;
  2. If the Minister of Conservation fails unreasonably to comply with a Protocol, Te Rūnanga may, subject to the Crown Proceedings Act 1950, enforce the Protocol by way of public law action against the Minister of Conservation;
  3. Notwithstanding paragraph (b), damages are not available as a remedy for a failure to comply with a Protocol; and
  4. This clause does not apply to any guidelines which are developed pursuant to a Protocol.
2.1.7 Limitation of Rights

Pursuant to section 286 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, except as expressly provided in the Deed of Settlement, the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, or in a Protocol, a Protocol does not, of itself, have the effect of granting, creating, or providing evidence of any estate or interest in, or any rights of any kind whatsoever relating to, land held, managed, or administered under the Conservation Act 1987 or a statute listed in the First Schedule of that Act.

3 Implementation and communication

3.1 The Department will seek to establish and maintain communication with Te Rūnanga and its Papatipu Rūnanga on a continuing basis by:

  1. maintaining at the conservancy level, with the assistance of Te Rūnanga, information provided on Papatipu Rūnanga, their office holders and addresses; and
  2. providing reasonable opportunities for Te Rūnanga and Papatipu Rūnanga to meet with Department managers and staff.

3.2 The Protocols provide for ongoing implementation of a range of matters, as well as Specific Projects which will require resourcing. It is not intended that all of the Specific Projects listed in these Protocols will be implemented in any one year. Implementation will be over time. Where these Protocols refer to Specific Projects that require resourcing, their implementation will be subject to provision being made in the relevant conservancy business plan. The process for the Department implementing any particular Specific Project in a business year will be as follows:

  1. The Department will meet with Te Rūnanga in each conservancy and at Regional level annually to identify priorities for undertaking Specific Projects as listed in these protocols for the upcoming business year;
  2. The identified priorities will be taken forward by the Department into its business planning process at the conservancy and regional levels and considered along with other priorities;
  3. The decision on whether any Specific Projects will be funded in any business year will be made by the Conservator and the Regional General Manager;
  4. The Department will advise Te Rūnanga of the outcome of this process; and
  5. Te Rūnanga and the Department will then meet again, if required, to finalise a work plan for implementation of the Specific Projects in that business year, in accordance with the resources which have been allocated in the business plan. The Department will apply the allocated resources to give effect to that work plan, subject to unforeseen management requirements which may arise from time to time, such as emergencies, adverse weather, staff shortages or reallocation of resources directed by the Minister.

3.3 The Department will:

  1. Meet with Te Rūnanga to review implementation of these Protocols and to deal with the matters in clause 3.2; four times per annum, unless otherwise agreed, in each conservancy, twice per annum at regional level, and at least once per annum at Chief Executive level;
  2. As far as reasonably practicable, train relevant staff on these Protocols and provide ongoing training as required; and
  3. As far as reasonably practicable, brief Conservation Board and NZCA members on these Protocols and the Ngāi Tahu Settlement, and provide ongoing information as required.

4 Cultural materials

4.1 For the purpose of these Protocols, cultural materials are defined as:

  1. plants, plant materials; and
  2. materials derived from animals, marine mammals or birds,

to the extent to which the Department holds and is responsible for them, and which are important to Ngāi Tahu in maintaining their culture.

4.2 Current legislation means that generally some form of concession or permit is required for any gathering of cultural materials.

4.3 The Department will:

  1. Have particular regard to Te Rūnanga's cultural use policy (Kawa Hua Taiao) as it relates to the Department's activities, and other relevant Te Rūnanga statements of policy produced from time to time.
  2. Consider requests from members of Ngāi Tahu Whānui for the customary use of cultural materials in accordance with the appropriate legislation.
  3. Agree, where reasonably practicable, for Ngāi Tahu to have access to cultural materials which become available as a result of Departmental operations such as track maintenance or clearance or culling of species.
  4. Consult with Te Rūnanga in circumstances where there are competing requests from non-Ngāi Tahu persons or entities for the use of cultural materials, for example for scientific research purposes, to see if the cultural and scientific or other needs can be reconciled before the Department makes a decision in respect of those requests.

4.4 Specific projects

The Department will, subject to clause 3.2, work with Te Rūnanga to:

  1. Develop and implement guidelines for each conservancy within the Ngāi Tahu Takiwā that help define levels of customary use of cultural materials, and set conditions, after consideration of tikanga, to be met for gathering;
  2. Identify local sources of plants and provide advice to Te Rūnanga with respect to the establishment by Te Rūnanga of cultivation sites; and
  3. Establish Departmental cultural materials banks for cultural materials which have come into the Department's possession, and guidelines for their use.

5 Freshwater fisheries

5.1 The Department has a statutory role in advocating the conservation of aquatic life and freshwater fisheries generally. Its advocacy for freshwater biota, aquatic habitats and fish passage in all areas is primarily taken via statutory planning processes provided by the Resource Management Act 1991.

5.2 Section 48B of the Conservation Act 1987 (inserted by section 305 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998) provides the power to promulgate regulations providing for customary Māori fishing rights with respect to freshwater fisheries within South Island Fisheries Waters. Pursuant to clause 12.14.11(e) of the Deed of Settlement such regulations are to be promulgated as soon as practicable, and in any event no later than two years after Settlement Date. Besides generally consulting with Te Rūnanga and providing for its participation in the conservation and management of customary freshwater fisheries and freshwater fish habitats, the Department will consult with, and have particular regard to the advice of, Te Rūnanga in its capacity as an Advisory Committee appointed under section 56 of the Conservation Act in all matters concerning the management and conservation by the Department of Conservation of Taonga Fish Species (as defined in section 297 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998) within the Ngāi Tahu Claim Area. This obligation does not derogate from the obligations of the Department under section 4 of the Conservation Act 1998 to give effect to the Treaty of Waitangi.

5.3 Advisory Committee

The Department will, in relation to the Taonga Fish Species and as far as reasonably practicable, provide the Advisory Committee with all relevant information to enable it to give informed advice, and will meet with the Advisory Committee at conservancy level as necessary to give effect to the Deed of Settlement and the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998.

5.4 Customary freshwater fisheries regulations

The Department will work with Te Rūnanga at Regional and conservancy levels to:

  1. Provide for Te Rūnanga participation in the development and promulgation of customary freshwater fishing regulations by:
    1. Establishing a joint working group;
    2. Setting terms of reference for that working group;
    3. Setting timelines for progress; and
    4. Providing information to Te Rūnanga in a timely manner and allowing Te Rūnanga an opportunity to comment.

5.5 Specific projects

The Department will, subject to clause 3.2, work with Te Rūnanga to:

  1. Develop and implement guidelines for the Department with respect to the promotion of compliance with customary freshwater fisheries regulations;
  2. Develop and implement guidelines for the Department with respect to monitoring the efficacy of the customary freshwater fisheries regulations at regular intervals; and
  3. Develop and implement guidelines for the Department with respect to sharing accumulated management information and research data on customary freshwater fisheries with Te Rūnanga.

5.6 Other matters

The Department will work with Te Rūnanga at Regional and conservancy levels to provide for active participation by Te Rūnanga in the conservation, management and research of customary freshwater fisheries and freshwater fish habitats by:

  1. Seeking to identify areas for cooperation in advocacy, consistent with clause 9, focusing on fish passage, minimum flows, protection of riparian vegetation and habitats, water quality improvement and in the restoration, rehabilitation or enhancement of customary freshwater fisheries and their freshwater habitats; and
  2. Consulting with Te Rūnanga in developing or contributing to research programmes that aim to improve the understanding of the biology of customary freshwater fisheries and their environmental and habitat requirements. The Department confirms that it regards Te Rūnanga as a possible science provider or collaborator for research projects funded or promoted by the Department in the same manner as other potential providers or collaborators.

5.7 Specific projects

The Department will, subject to clause 3.2, work with Te Rūnanga to:

  1. Conduct research to establish and address ecosystem threats to specified customary freshwater fisheries including barriers to migration, habitat loss and exotic species interaction;
  2. Contribute to the resolution of eel management issues, in particular, the administration of the fish passage regulations in the Freshwater Fisheries Regulations, the promotion of the installation of effective fish passes where necessary and monitoring of their effects, by participating in discussions with Te Rūnanga and Te Waka a Māui me ona Toka Mahi Tuna; and
  3. Identify the need for, and where necessary prepare, management plans for freshwater fisheries management.

6 Culling of species of interest to Ngāi Tahu

6.1 As part of an integrated management regime, or because a species population has risen to become an ecological pest, it may from time to time be necessary for the Department to carry out a cull of a protected species under the Wildlife Act 1953. The Department recognises that Te Rūnanga is interested in such operations in the following ways:

  1. the carrying out of such a cull where the species to be culled is causing or is likely to cause ecological damage to species or habitats of particular significance to Ngāi Tahu;
  2. the methods to be used in such culls; and
  3. cultural materials arising from the cull.

6.2 The Department will:

  1. Have regard to any requests initiated by Te Rūnanga for the carrying out of culling operations;
  2. Consult with, and have particular regard to the views of, Te Rūnanga before deciding to carry out a cull of protected species on land administered by the Department, in respect of the reasons for the cull and the method proposed to be used; and
  3. In situations where either a Fish and Game Council or a Regional Council intend to carry out a cull of protected species or game bird and the Department has a statutory role in the process, request the relevant body to consult with Te Rūnanga before carrying out any such cull.

7 Historic resources

7.1 The Minister acknowledges the importance to Ngāi Tahu of their wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and other places of historic significance to them. Liaison with Te Rūnanga is important in the management of those places containing sites of historic and cultural significance to Ngāi Tahu, including places of settlement, horticulture, natural resource harvesting, warfare, communication, and places of cultural and spiritual connection.

7.2 The Department notes that non-disclosure of locations of places known to Ngāi Tahu is a practice used by Ngāi Tahu to preserve the sanctity of a place. Respecting the principle of confidentiality brings management difficulties of a particular kind. Where information is not available, management practices which (unintentionally) contravene the cultural value associated with a specific site, may be put in place. Where reasonably practicable, the Department will respect the principle of confidentiality that applies to wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and places of historic significance to Ngāi Tahu. The primary responsibility for identifying and assessing Ngāi Tahu heritage values rests with Te Rūnanga.

7.3 The Department will work with Te Rūnanga at Regional and conservancy levels to:

  1. Ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, that Ngāi Tahu values attaching to identified wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and places of historic significance to Ngāi Tahu managed by the Department are respected by the Department, for example, by the Department giving consideration to impacts from visitor numbers, facilities and services;
  2. Manage, as far as reasonably practicable, wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and places of historic significance to Ngāi Tahu according to the standards of conservation practice outlined in the ICOMOS New Zealand Charter 1993;
  3. Ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, that when issuing concessions giving authority for other parties to manage land administered by the Department, those parties manage the land according to the standards of conservation practice outlined in the ICOMOS New Zealand Charter 1993;
  4. Have particular regard to relevant Te Rūnanga policies, including those relating to Koiwi Tangata (unidentified human remains) and Archaeological and Rock Art Sites;
  5. Ensure, as far as reasonably practicable, that it uses Ngāi Tahu's cultural information only with the consent of Te Rūnanga; and
  6. When issuing concessions to carry out activities on the land administered by the Department, request that the concessionaire consult with Te Rūnanga before using Ngāi Tahu's cultural information.

7.4 Specific projects

The Department will, subject to clause 3.2, work with Te Rūnanga at Regional and conservancy levels to:

  1. Develop and implement guidelines for the identification, inventory and management by the Department of wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and other places of historic significance to Ngāi Tahu that take into consideration the traditional uses and practices of Ngāi Tahu and are, where reasonably practicable, consistent with Ngāi Tahu tikanga;
  2. Identify and actively protect specified wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga or other places of historic significance to Ngāi Tahu on land administered by the Department;
  3. Develop and implement guidelines for the active protection of wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and other places of historic significance to Ngāi Tahu;
  4. Identify cooperative projects covering a range of options for the protection and management of wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and other places of historic significance to Ngāi Tahu;
  5. Develop and implement guidelines relating to the use of Ngāi Tahu's knowledge of wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and other places of historic significance of Ngāi Tahu, including the use of this information by the Department; and
  6. Consult with and seek participation from Te Rūnanga with respect to research, survey or inventory projects that relate specifically to wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and other places of historic significance to them.

8 Visitor and public information

8.1 In providing public information and interpretation services and facilities for visitors on the land it manages, the Department recognises the importance to Ngāi Tahu of their cultural, spiritual, traditional and historic values.

8.2 The Department will work with Te Rūnanga at Regional and conservancy levels to encourage respect for Ngāi Tahu values by:

  1. As far as reasonably practicable, seeking to raise public awareness of positive conservation partnerships developed between Te Rūnanga, the Department and other stakeholders, for example, by way of publications, presentations and seminars;
  2. Consulting on the provision of interpretation and visitor facilities (if any) at wāhi tapu, wāhi taonga and other places of historic or cultural significance to Ngāi Tahu;
  3. Ensuring, as far as reasonably practicable, that Department information on new panels, signs, and visitor publications includes Te Rūnanga perspectives and references to the significance of the sites to Ngāi Tahu, where appropriate, including the use of traditional Ngāi Tahu place names; and
  4. Encouraging Te Rūnanga participation in the Department's volunteer and conservation events programmes.

8.3 Specific projects

The Department will, subject to clause 3.2, work with Te Rūnanga at Regional and conservancy levels to:

  1. Develop and implement guidelines on the provision of information and interpretation facilities and services for visitors, so as to identify and consider issues of concern to Te Rūnanga;
  2. Consider possibilities for Te Rūnanga to contribute to visitor appreciation of the cultural value of sites of cultural and historic significance to Ngāi Tahu managed by the Department; and
  3. Provide information to education providers, including kohanga reo and kura kaupapa Māori, for the development of educational resources on conservation issues and associated Ngāi Tahu values.

9 Resource Management Act

9.1 Te Rūnanga and the Department both have concerns with the effects of activities controlled and managed under the Resource Management Act. These include effects on:

  1. wetlands;
  2. riparian management;
  3. effects on freshwater fish habitat;
  4. water quality management;
  5. protection of historic resources; and
  6. protection of indigenous vegetation and habitats.

9.2 From time to time, Te Rūnanga and the Department will seek to identify further issues of mutual interest for discussion. It is recognised that their concerns in relation to any particular resource management issue may diverge and that each of them will continue to make separate submissions.

9.3 The Department will work with Te Rūnanga at Regional and conservancy levels to discuss the general approach that will be taken by each of Te Rūnanga and the Department in respect of advocacy under the Resource Management Act, and seek to identify their respective priorities and issues of mutual concern.

9.4 The Department will:

  1. Have regard to the priorities and issues of mutual concern identified in clause 9.3(a) in making decisions in respect of advocacy under the Resource Management Act.
  2. Make non-confidential resource information available to Te Rūnanga to assist in improving the effectiveness of Resource Management Act advocacy work at the Papatipu Rūnanga level.

10 Amendment and review provisions from the Deed

10.1 Amendment and Cancellation of Protocols

Pursuant to section 282 of the Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998:

  1. Protocols may be amended or cancelled by the Minister of Conservation, from time to time at the initiative of either the Crown or Te Rūnanga;
  2. The Minister of Conservation may amend or cancel Protocols only after consulting Te Rūnanga and having regard to its views; and
  3. As soon as reasonably practicable after the amendment, or cancellation of a Protocol, the Minister of Conservation must notify such amendment, or cancellation in the Gazette.

Dated at Wellington this 26 day of July 2001
MATT ROBSON, for SANDRA LEE, Minister of Conservation.
(NZ Gazette 2001, page 2171)

Appendix 2

Prescriptions for managing visitor management zones in Paparoa National Park

Setting

Urban

Rural

Frontcountry

Backcountry:
accessible and walk-in

Remote

General description

  • Areas inside or on the periphery of urban areas
  • Typically includes a historic or cultural site

Remnant native forest, wetlands, marine reserves and historic or cultural sites in areas dominated by farmland and plantation forest

  • Where the majority of visits occur; typically small areas, scattered within or on the periphery of large relatively natural areas
  • Includes the vicinity of main 'scenic' roads passing through public conservation lands
  • Often focused on a particular attraction
  • Large-scale natural settings generally accessed first through frontcountry
  • Includes popular walks and tramps set within large-scale natural settings and/or that access other settings

Catchments beyond the backcountry zone, forming the wild lands in the interior of large protected areas, with basic low-use tracks, marked routes and huts

Accessibility

Enabled for people of most ages and abilities

  • Typically via sealed and unsealed roads, and in some cases by boat
  • Enabled for people of most ages or abilities
  • Readily accessible areas, usually via sealed roads, or scheduled ferry or air services
  • Mostly by car, but also tour buses and guided parties to some sites
  • Enabled for people of most ages and abilities
  • People will have travelled some distance to reach these settings
  • Backcountry accessible focuses on unsealed roads, four-wheel drive roads, navigable waters and aircraft landing sites
  • Motorised ground access generally restricted to roads and designated routes
  • Backcountry walk-in is focused beyond the influence of motorised access
  • Typically 5 or more hours travel on foot from frontcountry
  • Access supported by air or water craft in some areas

Predominant visitor groups

Short-stop travellers and day visitors

Short-stop travellers, day visitors and over-nighters

  • Predominantly short-stop travellers, day visitors and over-nighters
  • Other visitors in transition to backcountry and remote settings

Predominantly 'backcountry comfort seekers' and 'backcountry adventurers'

'Backcountry adventurers' and 'remoteness seekers'

Predominant destination categories

Icon, Gateway and Local Treasure

Predominately Icon, Gateway and Local Treasure

Predominately Backcountry

Facility setting

  • High-standard footpaths, cycleways and modified landscapes
  • High degree of control via information and direction signs, and barriers
  • Short walks, campsites and picnic areas, for a range of ages and abilities
  • High degree of control via information and direction signs, and barriers
  • Good-quality facilities, services and easy access
  • Sometimes the origin for tramping tracks and routes, with signs and information to make this transition clear
  • High degree of control via information and direction signs, and barriers
  • A range of facility standards, including any designated vehicle routes, and popular walks and tramping tracks
  • Evidence of control limited to essential directional signs and barriers on Great Walks, and where there are significant hazards
  • Basic huts, bridges, low-use tracks and marked routes
  • Evidence of control is limited to essential signs

Desired visitor experience and interactions

Varying, from activities with large groups, time with small groups/families, some time away from other groups and, in some cases, solitude

  • Generally some time away from other groups and, in some cases, solitude
  • Occasional encounters with organised groups
  • Generally accepting of occasional intrusion of noise
  • Reasonable expectation of isolation from sights, sounds and activities of other people
  • Interaction with few other groups
  • Considerable self-reliance on backcountry skills

Preferred maximum party size

  • What is socially appropriate
  • Conforming concessions schedule – 15 people including guides
  • 50 people including guides
  • Conforming concessions schedule – 15 people including guides
  • 15 people including guides
  • 50 people including guides for periodic tour parties
  • Conforming concessions schedule – 15 people including guides

15 people including guides

8 people including guides

Typical visitor interaction levels

What is socially appropriate

20 or less people seen per hour

30 or less people seen per visit duration

  • 15 or less people seen per day for 'backcountry adventurer' tracks
  • 40 or less people seen per day for 'backcountry comfort seeker' tracks

One other party seen per day

Concessions operations

  • Concessionaire activity may be permitted in all these visitor management zones, subject to conditions to avoid, remedy or mitigate adverse effects, including compliance with criteria within this table; the outcomes and policies for Te Wao Nui and Ngā Tamariki a Tāne apply
  • Concessionaire client activities should not be advantaged or disadvantaged compared with those for non-concessionaire visitors, unless there is a specified reason for different management; the outcomes and policies for Ngā Tamariki a Tāne apply

Preferred Concessions effects management

Avoid, remedy or mitigate adverse effects

Avoid or mitigate adverse effects

Avoid adverse effects

Aircraft management

Aircraft access for visitor use purpose should not be approved other than in accordance with the Aircraft policies in Te Wao Nui and the outcomes and policies in Ngā Tamariki a Tāne

Appendix 3: Taonga species in Paparoa National Park

Birds and fish

Name in Māori

Name in English

Scientific name

Kāhu

Australasian harrier

Circus approximans

Kākā

South Island kākā

Nestor meridionalis meridionalis

Kākāriki

New Zealand parakeet

Cyanoramphus spp

Kakaruai

South Island robin

Petroica australis australis

Kārearea

New Zealand falcon

Falco novaeseelandiae

Karoro

Black-backed gull

Larus dominicanus

Kea

Kea

Nestor notabilis

Kōau

Black shag

Phalacrocorax carbo

 

Pied shag

Phalacrocorax varius varius

 

Little shag

Phalacrocorax melanoleucos brevirostris

Koekoeā

Long-tailed cuckoo

Eudynamys taitensis

Kōparapara or Korimako

Bellbird

Anthornis melanura melanura

Kororā

Little penguin

Eudyptula minor

Kōtare

Kingfisher

Halcyon sancta

Kōtuku

White heron

Egretta alba

Kōwhiowhio

Blue duck

Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos

Kūaka

Bar-tailed godwit

Limosa lapponica

Kūkupa/Kererū

New Zealand wood pigeon

Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae

Kuruwhengu/Kuruwhengi

New Zealand shoveller

Anas rhynchotis

Miromiro

South Island tomtit

Petroica macrocephala macrocephala

Mohua

Yellowhead

Mohoua ochrocephala

Pākura/Pūkeko

Swamp hen/Pūkeko

Porphyrio porphyrio

Pārera

Grey duck

Anas superciliosa

Pīhoihoi

New Zealand pipit

Anthus novaeseelandiae

Pīpīwharauroa

Shining cuckoo

Chrysococcyx lucidus

Piripiripōhatu

Torrentfish

Cheimarrichthys fosteri

Pīwakawaka

South Island fantail

Rhipidura fuliginosa fuliginosa

Poaka

Pied stilt

Himantopus himantopus

Pūtakitaki

Paradise shelduck

Tadorna variegata

Riroriro

Grey warbler

Gerygone igata

Roroa

Great spotted kiwi

Apteryx haastii

Ruru koukou

Morepork

Ninox novaeseelandiae

Tara

Terns

Sterna spp

Tītī

Westland petrel

Procellaria westlandica

Tītitipounamu

South Island rifleman

Acanthisitta chloris chloris

Tūī

Tūī

Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae

Weka

Western weka

Gallirallus australis australis

Plants

Name in Māori

Name in English

Scientific name

Akatorotoro

White rātā

Metrosideros perforata

Aruhe

Fernroot (bracken)

Pteridium aquilinum var esculentum

Harakeke

Flax

Phormium tenax

Horoeka

Lancewood

Pseudopanax crassifolius

Houhi

Mountain ribbonwood

Hoheria lyalli and H. glabrata

Kahikatea

Kahikatea/White pine

Dacrycarpus dacrydioides

Kāmahi

Kāmahi

Weinmannia racemosa

Kānuka

Kānuka

Kunzea robusta

Kāpuka

Broadleaf

Griselinia littoralis

Karaeopirita

Supplejack

Ripogonum scandens

Karaka

New Zealand laurel/Karaka

Corynocarpus laevigata

Karamū

Coprosma

Coprosma robusta, Coprosma lucida, Coprosma foetidissima

Kātote

Tree fern

Cyathea smithii

Kiekie

Kiekie

Freycinetia banksii

Kōhia

NZ Passionfruit

Passiflora tetranda

Korokio

Korokio Wire-netting bush

Corokia cotoneaster

Koromiko/Kōkōmuka

Koromiko

Veronica salicifolia

Kōtukutuku

Tree fuchsia

Fuchsia excorticata

Kōwahi Kōhai

Kōwhai

Sophora microphylla

Mamaku

Tree fern

Cyathea medullaris

Mānaia

Sedge

Carex flagellifera

Mānuka Kahikātoa

Tea-tree

Leptospermum scoparium

Māpou

Red matipo

Myrsine australis

Mataī

Mataī/Black pine

Prumnopitys taxifolia

Miro

Miro/Brown pine

Prumnopitys ferruginea

Ngāio

Ngāio

Myoporum laetum

Nīkau

New Zealand palm

Rhopalostylis sapida

Pānako

Shore spleenwort

Asplenium obtusatum

Pātōtara

Dwarf mingimingi

Leucopogon fraseri

Pīngao

Pīngao

Desmoschoenus spiralis

Pōkākā

Pōkākā

Elaeocarpus hookerianus

Ponga/Poka

Silver fern

Cyathea dealbata

Rātā

Southern rātā

Metrosideros umbellata

Raupō

Bulrush

Typha orientalis

Rautāwhiri/Kōhūhū

Black matipo/Māpou

Pittosporum tenuifolium

Rimu

Rimu/Red pine

Dacrydium cypressinum

Taramea

Speargrass, spaniard

Aciphylla spp

Tarata

Lemonwood

Pittosporum eugenioides

Tawhai

Beech

Formerly Nothofagus spp, now Lophozonia or Fuscospora

Tētēaweka

Muttonbird scrub

Olearia avicenniifolia

Tī rākau/Tī Kōuka

Cabbage tree

Cordyline australis

Tīkumu

Mountain daisy

Celmisia spectabilis and C. semicordata

Toatoa

Mountain Toatoa, Celery pine

Phyllocladus alpinus

Toetoe

Toetoe

Austroderia richardii

Tōtara

Hall's Tōtara

Podocarpus laetus

Tōtara

Westland Tōtara

Podocarpus acutifolius

Tōtara

Snow Tōtara

Podocarpus nivalis

Tutu

Tutu

Coriaria spp

Wharariki

Mountain flax

Phormium cookianum

Whīnau

Hīnau

Elaeocarpus dentatus

Silver tussock

Poa cita

Wīwī

Rushes

Several indigenous Juncus spp, including Juncus kraussii subsp australiensis

Appendix 4: Ecosystem units in and adjoining Paparoa National Park

This list of ecosystem units in Paparoa National Park has been identified from the Department's national list of around 1000 ecosystem units, which represent the full range of New Zealand's terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems. See also section 2.1 Natural values and the Department's website www.doc.govt.nz.

A full range of New Zealand's ecosystems is conserved to a healthy functioning state

Name of ecosystem unit

Description

Predominant ecosystem and habitat types included within the ecosystem

Dolomite Point

The best and most accessible example of the limestone hills west of the syncline, dropping steeply into the sea forming spectacular cliffs.

Coastal and inland cliffs – broadleaved coastal forest and shrubs containing characteristic shore plants, such as the New Zealand shore spurge waiu-atua, Euphorbia glauca.

On the edge of the cliffs are examples of the originally uncommon vegetation association of coastal turfs. This association of diminutive ground hugging native plants survive on the most exposed headlands subjected to persistent salt-laden winds and include one of the endangered coastal cresses Lepidium flexicaule.

Pakiroa Flats

The flats are composed of prograded sandplains with an increasingly aged dune ridge and hollow system which stretches from the stony Pakiroa Beach ridge to the base of the Paparoa Ranges.

Behind the cobbled beach the associated dune systems support the largest remaining coastal wetland in the Buller region which is fringed by untouched lowland podocarp forest with the charismatic northern rata emergent over a canopy of totara, rimu and kahikatea.

Tiropahi pakihi

This valley system supports extensive pakihi vegetation on the podsolised and infertile soils. These short stature vegetation associations dominated by native rushes and peat-forming species such as sphagnum moss and wire rush are home to the shy fernbird and the increasingly rare Westland mudfish.

Among the dominant rush and carex species are sun-loving orchids and the carnivorous native sundews. The pakihi transition into forests of beech and stunted podocarps which support high numbers of native robins and many other species of forest birds.

Saxton/Otututu Ecological Area

This is mountainous country of ancient gneiss, which consists of several long steep-sided glaciated valleys ending at a belt of glacial outwash terraces.

The sequences of forests from valley floor to alpine ridge include virgin silver beech forests, mountain beech and pink pine. These forest sequences support large and diverse bird populations, including high numbers of roroa/great spotted kiwi in the alpine zones.

Paparoa

Extensive and complex forests on gneiss and tertiary sediments; varying mixes of conifer, broadleaved and beech, with the first two dominant in the west, but increasing beech dominance with progression to higher elevations.

The lower altitude forests are composed of broadleaved species, and beech forest of abundant hard beech and rimu with occasional miro and Hall's totara. The higher altitude forests are dominated by silver beech forests with celery pines, tree fuchsia in the riparian strips and other high light environments and the tree daisies of the Olearia genus. In the subalpine, the low forest and scrub contain a range of species of Olearia, Brachyglottis, Pseudopanax, Dracophyllum, Hebe, Coprosma, Hoheria, montane podocarp trees and mānuka. The alpine areas are highly diverse grasslands dominated by the charismatic snow tussocks set within a mosaic of small herbs and highly diverse moss flora.

Punakaiki

Celebrates the limestone cliffs and to the east the syncline containing Tertiary sediments. The syncline supports a major karst plateau and self-draining basin in the bed of the syncline.

The immense and intact podocarp forest supports good numbers of forest birds including roroa/great spotted kiwi, kākā, ruru koukou/morepork and kereru/New Zealand wood pigeon; the ancient rimu and massive northern rata providing them nectar in summer and fruit in autumn and winter. The native and most southerly palm in the world, Nīkau, lines the coastal highway and provides the tropical feel of this dense and luxurious coastal forest.

Fletcher Creek/Te Wharau

One of the best examples of the little dissected glacial outwash aggregation terraces in the eastern Paparoa.

These infertile gleyed and peaty soils on the terraces support intact and diverse pakihi vegetation which provides territory for good populations of the mātātā/South Island fernbird and kakaruai/robin.

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