Takahē at Burwood
Image: Stephen Belcher | ©


The flightless takahē is a unique bird, a conservation icon and a survivor.


Population: 445 as of October 2020
New Zealand status:
Conservation status: Threatened–Nationally Vulnerable
Found in: Native grasslands of Murchison Mountains, Fiordland and Gouland Downs, Kahurangi National Park
Threats: Predation, competition for food

Sound recordings:

Takahē song (MP3, 622K)
00:38 – Takahē song.

Takahē song (MP3, 611K)
00:52 – Takahē song.

Species information: Takahē on NZ Birds Online

    The flightless takahē (South Island takahē; Porphyrio hochstetteri), is the world’s largest living rail (a family of small-medium sized ground-dwelling birds with short wings, large feet and long toes). The North Island takahē (moho; P. mantelli) is unfortunately extinct.

    Takahē have special cultural, spiritual and traditional significance to Ngāi Tahu, the iwi (Māori tribe) of most of New Zealand’s South Island. Ngāi Tahu value takahē as a taonga (treasure) and they continue to act as kaitiaki (guardians) of the takahē by working with DOC to protect this precious species.

    Are they just fat pūkeko?

    No! Although they look similar to their distant relative the pūkeko/purple swamp hen (that are common and can fly), takahē are much larger and more brightly coloured. Takahē weigh between 2.3 – 3 kg.

    Takahē compared with pukeko.
    Takahē are larger with stout legs and more colours; pūkeko are blue with a black back
    Image: Shellie Evans ©

    Takahē have stout red legs and a large, strong red beak. Their feathers range from a dark royal blue head, neck and breast, to peacock blue shoulders, through to shades of iridescent turquoise and olive green on their wings and back. They have wings, but only use them for display during courtship or as a show of aggression.

    Takahē only breed once a year, raising 1–2 chicks. Pairs will fiercely defend their territories. Families need a lot of space, with territories ranging between 4–40 ha, depending on the availability and quality of their food.

    Takahē live for 16–18 years in the wild and 20–22 years at sanctuary sites.

    In the wild, takahē inhabit native grasslands. They eat mostly the starchy leaf bases of tussock and sedge species, and also tussock seeds when available. If snow cover is heavy, they will move to the forest and feed mainly on underground rhizomes of the summer green fern.

    Takahē may retreat to forest for shelter when snow is thick
    Image: Servane Kiss ©

    Takahē have 1 or 2 chicks a year
    Image: DOC

    Takahē conservation


    Deer love to browse on the same tussock species as takahē do. Unfortunately, this affects tussock growth and can impact on takahē food and habitat.

    Stoats are predators of takahē. In 2007, there was a stoat plague that halved the takahē popluation in the Murchison Mountains. 

    Fight for survival

    Takahē once roamed across the South Island, but pressures from hunting, introduced predators, habitat destruction and competition for food led to their decline.

    After being presumed extinct for nearly 50 years, the takahē was famously rediscovered in 1948. Geoffrey Orbell, a physician from Invercargill and his party, found the last remaining wild population of the bird high in the tussock grasslands of the remote Murchison Mountains, above Lake Te Anau, Fiordland.

    The rediscovery of the takahē launched New Zealand’s longest running endangered species programme. For more than 70 years, measures to ensure takahē are never again considered extinct have included pioneering conservation techniques for endangered species, captive breeding, island translocations and wild releases.

    Today takahē are classified as Nationally Vulnerable, with a population of just over 400 birds. DOC's dedicated Takahē Recovery Programme is working hard to grow this number and establish self-sustaining wild populations within their former range, the native grasslands of the South Island.

    Takahē Recovery Programme

    Find out more about takahē conservation and ways you can help. 

    You can help

    Through the Takahē Recovery Programme, you can help by sponsoring a takahē, visiting a sanctuary site, and keeping up to date with conservation work. 

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