- There are two sub-species: North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater) and South Island saddleback (P.c.carunculatus).
- The most endangered of the two species is the South Island saddleback, with only 650 birds in existence.
- It is a medium sized bird, and adults of both sexes have similar plumage.
- The bird's main feature is a conspicuous chestnut-coloured saddle on its back, but it also has chestnut on the tip of its tail, a black bill, black legs, and orange, "fleshy" wattles either side of its throat.
- Young South Island saddleback/tīeke (less than 15 months old) have a different plumage from adults. They are entirely dark brown with smaller wattles.
- South Island birds assume a saddleback marking by the end of the second moult.
- North Island birds assume a saddleback marking before they leave the nest.
- Juveniles are known as "jack-birds".
- Saddlebacks are very vocal birds. The males have a repertoire of melodious calls that they use during mating and in territorial disputes.
- The male has larger wattles than the female.
- Size: 25cm; males 80g, females 70g.
Where to find them
All saddlebacks are extinct on the mainland, and live either in captivity or on islands. Saddlebacks are found mostly in the middle and lower layers of the forest, usually on the ground, probing through dead wood and leaf litter for weta, grubs and other insects. They also eat fruits of various forest trees, such as kawakawa and coprosma.
South Island saddleback/tīeke
North Island saddleback/tīeke
The saddleback or tīeke belongs to New Zealand's unique wattlebird family, which also includes the endangered kōkako and the extinct huia
Saddlebacks were once widespread throughout New Zealand's mainland and island forests. Their decline began in the mid 19th century, caused by forest clearance and introduced predators such as ship rats, feral cats and stoats.
By this century, both species were close to extinction. South Island saddlebacks were limited to three islands: Big South Cape, Pukeweka, and Soloman Islands (near Stewart Island), while the North Island species was restricted to Hen Island in the Hauraki Gulf.
Saddleback/tīeke sound recordings
In the early 1960s, disaster struck the southern species. A boat accidentally brought ship rats to Big South Cape Island (largest of its three island homes), and quickly spread to the other two. The result was an ecological nightmare for many endemic species and caused the extinction of the Stewart Island snipe, Stead's bush wren and the greater short-tailed bat.
The New Zealand Wildlife Service (now incorporated into the Department of Conservation) came to the rescue and saved the saddleback from extinction.
North Island saddleback/tīeke
North Island saddleback juvenile
Early in 1964, the NZ Wildlife Service successfully transferred some North Island saddlebacks from Hen Island, Hauraki Gulf to nearby Whatapuke Island. This was possibly the first time the translocation of a species had been successfully carried out.
This led the way for the translocation of South Island saddlebacks from their rat-plagued islands to predator-free ones. The current population of over 700 birds is descended from the survivors of the 36 saddlebacks rescued in 1964.
This method of translocating species to island refuges continues to be a major strategy of the Department of Conservation.
The North Island saddleback is now resident on nine large islands (7,000 hectares) and is in a favourable position to survive. The South Island species is on 11 smaller islands (500 hectares) and it needs translocating onto further predator-free islands if it is to recover.
Dick Veitch banding saddleback/tīeke,
Co-operation between local iwi, who harvest muttonbirds on several of the islands, and the department has been crucial to the success of the conservation work being carried out for the southern species.
DOC's work with saddleback/tīeke
The Department of Conservation has established a South Island saddleback recovery plan (PDF, 207K).
The plan aims to:
- Maintain the existing wild saddleback populations, including protecting the 10 existing populations on Titi, Breaksea, Motuara and Allports islands.
- Adopt stringent rodent, weed and disease quarantine measures for the islands.
- Remove predators from islands suitable for saddlebacks and translocate the birds to these refuges.
- Maintain a population in captivity. The value of captive breeding is to learn more about the management of a species. North Island saddlebacks are held at the National Wildlife Centre, Mount Bruce, Wairarapa.