Kiwi sound recording
Adult kiwi usually mate for life, and are strongly territorial. Depending on the species, the male kiwi does most of the egg incubation. There is usually one clutch of one egg per year from June to December. Brown kiwi often have two clutches of two eggs.
Chicks hatch fully feathered after a long incubation of 70-85 days, emerge from the nest to feed at about five days old and are never fed by their parents. Juveniles grow slowly, taking three to five years to reach adult size.
View a map of the distribution of kiwi.
All kiwi species are threatened with extinction, but to varying degrees. The rowi and the Haast tokoeka are our most threatened kiwi, due to their small population size and limited number of populations.
The brown kiwi, great spotted kiwi, and the Fiordland and Rakiura (Stewart Island)forms of tokoeka are 'nationally vulnerable', the third highest threat ranking in the New Zealand Threat Classification System; and the little spotted kiwi is classified as “at risk (recovering)”.
Kiwi and people
Kiwi are a significant national icon, equally cherished by all cultures in New Zealand. Kiwi are a symbol for the uniqueness of New Zealand wildlife and the value of our natural heritage.
The bird itself is a taonga (treasure) to Maori, who have strong cultural, spiritual and historic associations with kiwi. Its feathers are valued in weaving kahukiwi (kiwi feather cloak) for people of high rank.
Due to the cultural significance to Maori and the traditional knowledge about the bird, tangata whenua are a key stakeholder in kiwi management. For a number of local iwi and hapu throughout New Zealand, this relationship between tangata whenua and kiwi has been formally recognised as part of their Treaty of Waitangi settlement claims, which encompass specific references to species recovery work. This includes the Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998.
Kiwi have become flagship species for conservation and are often used as a measure for the state of our natural environment and the outcome and value of community conservation projects.
Today, more than 90 community and iwi-led groups actively protect kiwi over a combined area estimated to be 230,000 ha – very similar to the amount of public conservation land protected by DOC for kiwi. Land is managed for wild populations, as well as at fenced predator-proof sites and on predator-free islands
Many community and iwi-led kiwi conservation groups are working to help kiwi
Threats to kiwi
The biggest threat to kiwi chicks is stoats, and to adult kiwi, dogs.
Introduced mammals can also have a wider impact on kiwi. Competition by rodents for similar food appears to result in delayed growth of kiwi chicks and therefore increased pressure on the overall population at some sites. Rats are fodder for stoats – when there are lots of rats, there are lots of stoats.
In areas where we do the work to control predators, kiwi numbers are increasing. On the Coromandel, for example, the kiwi population is doubling every decade thanks to intensive predator control.
Other threats include habitat modification/loss and motor vehicle strike, as well as the small population size and distribution of some species. New avian disease and parasites that may reach New Zealand present a further threat to kiwi populations.
In most parts of the country, stoats are responsible for approximately half of kiwi chick deaths on the mainland. Without management only 10% of kiwi chicks survive to the age of six months. Young kiwi chicks are vulnerable to stoat predation until they reach about one kilogram in weight, at which time they can usually defend themselves against stoats.
Dogs frequently kill adult kiwi and can cause catastrophic declines in local populations.
All dogs, regardless of size, breed, training or temperament are potential kiwi killers. Farm dogs, hunting dogs, visiting dogs and pet dogs are equally attracted to the strong distinctive scent of kiwi.
They may not mean to kill, but kiwi are extremely easily crushed in dog’s jaws, even if just in a playful bite. Kiwi have no sternum (breastbone), so their ribcage is very vulnerable to collapse. It is now recognised that dogs significantly reduce the life expectancy of adult Northland brown kiwi to just 14 years on average.
Find out about kiwi avoidance training for dogs.
Read more about dogs and Northland brown kiwi.
Uncontrolled, wild or abandoned cats are a threat and kill kiwi chicks. Tests with radio collars on pet cats have shown their ability to wander up to 20 kilometres from home.
Ferrets frequently kill adult kiwi.
Small population size
Risks to small populations of kiwi include loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and vulnerability to localised dramatic events such as fire, disease or predator increases. Limited dispersal and associated lowered chances of finding a mate in declining, small populations can also lead to lower reproductive rates, worsening the effect of the decline.
You can help
For New Zealanders, the kiwi is not just another bird and saving kiwi is not just a matter of concern for scientists and conservationists. To all New Zealanders, kiwi are an important part of our unique natural heritage.
There are many kiwi conservation groups that you could join. They are from the Far North all the way down to Stewart Island. Their main focus is on predator control – thousands and thousands of traps are placed throughout New Zealand forests.
You can help save the kiwi in many ways:
Control dogs and other pets
- Keep your dog tied up and cats inside at night if you live in or near kiwi habitat.
- Avoid taking your dogs into kiwi areas. Dogs are prohibited from all kiwi sanctuaries. If you do need to take your dog into kiwi areas, take it to kiwi aversion training, and keep it on a leash under strict control at all times. Remember dogs are not permitted in many conservation areas so check with your local DOC office first.
- Report roaming dogs in kiwi areas to DOC.
- Do not dump unwanted pets (dogs, cats or ferrets) in the bush. Give them to the SPCA or have them humanely put down by a vet.
Rowi killed by a stoat
The biggest threat to kiwi chicks is stoats, and to adult kiwi, dogs
Make a donation
Visit the Kiwis for kiwi website and make a secure online credit card donation. All donations go directly to Kiwis for kiwi for allocation to kiwi conservation projects throughout New Zealand. Any donation over $5 is tax deductible.
Volunteer to help save kiwi
- Volunteer your time and energy to local kiwi conservation community projects.
- Encourage the safeguarding of kiwi habitat in your area.
- Consider moving to or establishing a cat- and dog-free housing subdivision.
Watch out for kiwi
- If you are lucky to have kiwi on your property, protect them by fencing and covenanting habitat, trapping predators, keeping dogs under control, and putting escape ramps in cattle stops.
- Learn to recognise kiwi calls and report what you hear and see to DOC.
- Drive carefully at night and watch for kiwi on roads when driving through kiwi habitat (look out for the distinctive yellow kiwi road sign).
- If you manage plantation forest, use techniques such as the kiwi-safe harvesting regime.
- Join the Quest for Kiwi.
Report sick or injured kiwi
- If you find a sick, injured or dead kiwi, take it to your nearest DOC office.
- If you hit a kiwi with your car, do not hit-and-run! If the bird is injured or dead, take it to your nearest DOC office.
Read how you can help Northland brown kiwi
Read about kiwi