Independent experts, conservation agencies, community groups and scientists endorse the use of 1080.

The Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment

In 2011, the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (PCE) conducted an independent review into the use of 1080. The PCE is independent of the government of the day.

The report systematically assessed 1080 for its effectiveness, safety and humaneness.

“It is my view based on careful analysis of the evidence that not only should the use of 1080 continue (including in aerial operations) to protect our forests, but that we should use more of it.

“Alternatives, whether currently available or on the horizon, can complement the use of 1080, but cannot replace it. The huge effort, expenditure and achievements to date in bringing back many species and ecosystems from the brink would be wasted if the ability to carry out aerial applications of 1080 was lost.”

View the full report: Evaluating the use of 1080: Predators, poisons and silent forests – Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment

Newshub interviewed Jan Wright  in September 2018:

Independent scientists and experts

Experienced science and environment writer, Dave Hansford, is the author of Protecting Paradise: 1080 and the Fight to Save New Zealand's Wildlife. He’s reviewed the evidence around use of 1080, monitoring results and anti-1080 claims, and endorses 1080 as a vital tool. Source: Newshub

Read more about Dave' Hansford's work below:

National Portrait: 1080 author Dave Hansford Source: Stuff

1080 works, but there's no arguing with anti-1080 activists - expert Source: Newshub

‘Blood will fall’: the bush Rambos at war with 1080 Source: The Spinoff

1080 literature – reports, reviews and regulations

Read independent reports and reviews on the use of 1080 for predator control and learn about the strict regulations.

Environmental Protection Authority's five-year review of aerial 1080 use

Published December 2013

The rules for using 1080 were changed in 2007, after a major reassessment that reviewed the risks and benefits of the poison (see below). This five year review looks at how aerial use of 1080 has changed since then. It shows the new rules are working as intended, so there are no plans to reassess 1080 again. 

Overall the review shows: 

  • there are now fewer complaints about 1080 operations. Only five were reported in 2012, which is a substantial improvement when compared to 34 in 2008 and 35 in 2009.
  • the number of “incidents” (which include rule breaches by the general public and by operators) has declined since 2010. There were 35 incidents in 2010, 34 in 2011, and 23 in 2012.
  • monitoring data from more than 500 samples show that 1080 was detected in only two percent of all samples and has never been detected in drinking water catchments. Where it has been detected, concentrations of 1080 are far below the levels set to protect human health.
  • the number of operations was highest in 2008, at 70, and has now declined to 48 for 2012. The reduction in operations is considered to be due to the normal long-term cycle of pest control.
  • the amount of 1080 used in aerial operations declined between 2008 and 2010 and has remained relatively constant since.
  • the total land coverage by aerial 1080 applications was greatest in 2008 and lowest in 2010. From 2009 onwards it has fluctuated between 400,000 and 500,000 hectares.

Read the Environmental Protection Authority's five-year review

Environmental Risk Management Authority's independent review of 1080

Published August 2007

In 2006, DOC and the Animal Health Board (now TBfree New Zealand) requested that the Environmental Risk Management Authority (ERMA) conduct an independent review of 1080 and reassess its use in New Zealand. ERMA was the government agency responsible for managing adverse affects of hazardous substances. 

The review considered volumes of scientific literature and experts' evidence and heard more than 1400 submissions before approving 1080 for continued use.


  • The continued use of 1080 has significant benefits for New Zealand’s environment
  • Well-managed aerial operations posed a low risk to the native environment and to indigenous biodiversity

Future management

The agency called for a tighter management regime for aerial operations that included:

  • establishing a watch list of aerial 1080 operations
  • strengthening existing controls for all users of 1080 to further mitigate the risks
  • promoting best practice before and during 1080 operations
  • further research into the effects of 1080 and the use of alternatives

Read ERMA’s review of the use of 1080

The Science Hub - Pokapū Akoranga Pūtaiao

This website provides science-based facts about the use of 1080 in New Zealand.

Read more facts about 1080

Forest & Bird

Forest & Bird advocates the use of 1080 poison to protect our native plants and animals.

Read about how 1080 poison protects New Zealand wildlife

Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment

In 2011 the Commissioner released an independent report Evaluating the use of 1080: Predators, poisons and silent forests endorsing the use of 1080.

Order a copy of the report

Landcare Research

The Pest Control Technologies Team focuses on research into new and improved pest control management strategies, tools and techniques. The key pest targets include possums, rats and stoats. Learn more about animal pest management

Research references

1080, plants and soil 

Leong LEX, Khan S, Davis CK, Denman SE, McSweeney CS. 2017. Fluoroacetate in plants – a review of its distribution, toxicity to livestock and microbial detoxification.  Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology. 8:55.

Ogilvie S, Ataria J, Waiwai J, Doherty J, Lambert M, Lambert N. 2004. Uptake and persistence of 1080 in plants of cultural importance.  Lincoln University Wildlife Management Report No. 49. Lincoln: Lincoln University.

Srinivasan MS, Suren A. 2018. Tracking 1080 (sodium fluoroacetate) in surface and subsurface flows during a rainfall event: a hillslope-scale field study.  Australasian Journal of Water Resources. 22(1):71.

1080 and water  

Booth LH, Ogilvie SC, Wright GR, Eason CT. 1999. Degradation of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) and fluorocitrate in water. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 62:34–39.

Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research: Laboratories & diagnostics. [date unknown]. [2023 Dec 18].

NIWA: Water safe after a 1080 drop. 2017. [2023 Dec 18].

Suren AM. 2006. Quantifying contamination of streams by 1080 baits, and their fate in water. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 40(1):159–167.

1080 and aquatic life  

Ministry for Primary Industries. 2016. Evaluation of Fish and Game food chain exposure pathway for human consumption of trout from within a 1080 treatment area. [place unknown]: Ministry for Primary Industries.

Suren A, Bonnett ML. 2006. Consumption of baits containing sodium fluoroacetate (1080) by the New Zealand freshwater crayfish (Paranephrops planifrons). New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 40(1):169–178.

Suren AM, Lambert P. 2006. Do toxic baits containing sodium fluroacetate [sic] (1080) affect fish and invertebrate communities when they fall into streams? New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. 40(4):531–546.

1080 and native species

Bomans R, Cook A, Hartley S. 2021. Bioacoustic monitoring of lower North Island bird communities before and after aerial application of 1080. New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 45(1):3435.

Department of Conservation: Proof 1080 is saving our species. [date unknown]. [2023 Dec 18].

OSPRI: Forests do not fall silent from 1080, 10-year study shows. 2023. [2023 Dec 18].

Other topics  

Animal Health Board, Department of Conservation 2006. Application for the reassessment of 1080. Wellington: Animal Health Board and Department of Conservation. Section 3.3, Hazard classifications of 1080 and formulations containing 1080; p. 90–125.

Eason C, Miller A, Ogilvie S, Fairweather A. 2011. An updated review of the toxicology and ecotoxicology of sodium fluoroacetate (1080) in relation to its use as a pest control tool in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology. 35(1):1–20.    

Ministry of Health. 2022. Guidelines for issuing permissions for the use of vertebrate toxic agents: Revised 2022. Wellington: Ministry of Health.

Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment: The effectiveness of 1080. [date unknown]. [2023 Dec 18].

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