In the “South Island wilding conifer strategy

View the Schedule of infestation sites on lands administered by DOC (PDF, 447K)

This schedule lists all known wilding conifer infestations that threaten DOC-administered land in the South Island. The schedule has been compiled from Area Weed Control Strategies, Conservation Management Strategies, Protected Natural Area Programme reports, comments from DOC staff, and personal knowledge of some infestation sites.

The schedule is unlikely to be complete. Many areas threatened by wilding conifer spread are poorly known, and many have not been surveyed. The wilding conifer species that threaten some sites, and the biodiversity values at risk, are frequently not known or not clear. And, wilding conifers can invade new areas so quickly, new infestations may not yet be reported.

This Schedule of Infestation Sites is modeled on the spreadsheet of site-led programmes in Appendix 2 of Invasive Weed Threats: Weed-led and Site-led programmes identified by the Department of Conservation, June 1998 (Owen, 1998b). The main difference between the wilding conifer schedule (attached) and the site-led programme spreadsheet (Owen, 1998b) is that the former is primarily concerned with wilding conifers, whereas the latter considers all weed threats.

The purpose of the schedule is to identify (as part of the Wilding Conifer Strategy) the priorities for wilding conifer control in the South Island of New Zealand. Infestation sites are listed in order of priority for control using the following criteria:

  1. The total score, from 21 (highest priority) to 1.5 (lowest priority); then,
  2. Whether wilding conifers, or other invasive weeds, pose the main threat to the site. Sites where wilding conifers do not pose a significant threat are ranked lower than sites where they do; i.e. infestation sites where the urgency score for conifers is lower than the score for other weeds (these sites are marked with an asterisk (*) in the 'total score' column); then,
  3. The risk of re-infestation at the site (ranked 'low', 'low-medium', 'medium', 'medium-high', or 'high'), where low risk sites are ranked higher; then,
  4. The size of site, where small sites are ranked higher than large sites.

(Only sites scoring 12.5 or more are further sorted at stages 3 and 4)

The final priorities for wilding conifer control at each site may be influenced by other factors beyond the detail or scope of this strategy.

Methodology for interpretation of the schedule

Management Unit Name / Infestation Site Name
(column 1):

Lists the management unit and the infestation site within the management unit that is threatened by wilding conifers. A slash ' / ' separates the management unit name and infestation site name. Note that all management units threatened by wilding conifers are included, even if the present wilding infestations or seed trees are located outside the management unit and/or on land not administered by DOC.

Area Office (column 2):

Lists the DOC Area within which the management unit is located. Abbreviations for Areas, with the location of Area offices in brackets, are:

AO Aoraki (Mt Cook)
BU Buller (Westport)
CE Central Otago (Alexandra)
CO Coastal Otago (Dunedin)
GB Golden Bay (Takaka)
GR Greymouth (Greymouth)
MO Motueka (Motueka)
MU Murihiku (Invercargill)
NC North Canterbury (Christchurch)
RU Raukapuka (Geraldine)
SA St Arnaud (St Arnaud)
SI Southern Islands (Invercargill)
SM South Marlborough (Blenheim)
SO Sounds (Picton)
TA Te Anau (Te Anau)
TW Twizel (Twizel)
WA Waimakariri (Arthur's Pass)
WK Wakatipu (Queenstown)
WN Wanaka (Wanaka)

Area Under Threat (column 3):

Quantifies the area (in hectares) within the management unit that is likely to be affected by wilding conifers in 10-15 years if no control is undertaken. At some sites it is difficult to determine with accuracy the area affected by wilding conifer spread. The figures in this column must, in many cases, be regarded as estimates.

Rank Scores - Botanical (column 4):

Identifies the Botanical Score for the management unit, based on the Six-Point Scoring System outlined in the Department of Conservation Strategic Plan for Managing Invasive Weeds (SPMIW) (Owen, 1998a). Threatened plants, and the threat categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), are those listed in the most recent published list of threatened plants (de Lange et al, 1999).

Rank Scores - Wildlife (column 5):

Identifies the Wildlife Score for the management unit, based on the Six-Point Scoring System outlined in the DOC SPMIW (Owen, 1998a). Endangered, rare, and restricted species are those listed as 'Category A' or 'Category B' species in the DOC publication Setting Priorities for the Conservation of New Zealand's Threatened Plants and Animals, (Tisdall, 1994) (Second Edition of Molloy and Davis, 1992). These species are recorded as 'Cat.A' or 'Cat.B' species in the schedule.

Rank Scores - Urgency (column 6):

Identifies the urgency of weed control in the management unit, based on the Criteria for Assessing Urgency of Control in the DOC SPMIW. Where the 'wilding conifer species' present in the unit are less invasive than other invasive weeds present in the unit, this is indicated by a second score in this column and an asterix ' * ' in the total score column (column 7).

Rank Scores - Total Score (column 7):

The Total Score is the higher of the botanical and wildlife scores multiplied by the urgency score. The risk of re-infestation is also noted in this column.

Important Natural Values of the Management Unit
(column 8):

Describes the main plant communities present in the management unit and specifies the characteristics of those communities, or species within the communities, upon which the botanical and wildlife scores are based. Plant community descriptions are based on the structural classes proposed by Atkinson (1985).

Threat Posed to the Management Unit by Invasive Weeds (column 9):

Describes the impacts that invasive weeds are expected to have on the plant communities and/or wildlife habitat of the management unit over 10-15 years if no weed control is undertaken. Actual or potential impacts on landscape character, historic values, cultural values, or recreational opportunities are also noted.

Objectives of Wilding Conifer Control Programme
(column 10):

Describes the actions required to protect the plant communities and/or wildlife habitat of the management unit from the wilding conifer species that threaten the management unit.

Wilding Conifer Species threatening the Management Unit (column 11):

Lists the wilding conifer species that threaten the plant communities and/or wildlife habitat of the management unit. Wilding conifers are all those naturalised species within the Gymnospermae (Class Coniferopsida), and include all species within the Araucariaceae, Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, and Taxodiaceae families. Naturalised species within these families, and the common and scientific names for these species, are as listed in the Flora of New Zealand Volume IV (Webb, Sykes, and Garnock-Jones, 1988). (see species list below)

Other Pest Species threatening the Management Unit (column 12):

Lists all other significant weed and animal species that threaten the plant communities or wildlife habitat of the management unit. Ubiquitous herbaceous species that are not normally controlled are not recorded unless they pose a significant threat to the values of the management unit. Species listed are those recorded in existing weed strategies, inventories, or in the literature. It is likely that not all species, especially animal pest species, are recorded. (see species list below) 
 

References cited in appendix 1

Atkinson, I.A.E. 1985. Derivation of mapping units for an ecological survey of Tongariro National Park, North Island, New Zealand. NZ Journal of Botany 23: 361-378

de Lange, P.J.; Heenan, P.B.; Given, D.R.; Norton, D.A.; Ogle, C.C.; Johnson, P.N.; Cameron, E.K. 1999. Threatened and uncommon plants of New Zealand. NZ Journal of Botany 37: 603-628

Owen, S.J. 1997. Ecological Weeds on Conservation Land in New Zealand: A Database. January 1997 Working Draft. Department of Conservation, Wellington.

Owen, S.J. 1998a. Department of Conservation Strategic Plan for Managing Invasive Weeds. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 86p.

Owen, S.J. 1998b. Invasive Weed Threats: Weed-led and site-led programmes identified by the Department of Conservation, June 1998. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 66p.

Tisdall, C. 1994. Setting Priorities for the Conservation of New Zealand's Threatened Plants and Animals (Second Edition). Department of Conservation, Wellington.

Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.; Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV. Botany Division, D.S.I.R, Christchurch. 1365p.

 

Common and scientific names of wilding conifers listed in the schedule *


 

big cone pine...................... Pinus coulteri
bishop pine......................... Pinus muricata
contorta pine....................... Pinus contorta
Corsican pine..................... Pinus nigra ssp. laricio
Douglas fir........................... Pseudotsuga menziesii
larch..................................... Larix decidua
Lawson's cypress............... Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
macrocarpa......................... Cupressus macrocarpa
maritime pine...................... Pinus pinaster
mountain pine..................... Pinus mugo
Norway spruce.................... Picea abies
Ponderosa pine.................. Pinus ponderosa
radiata pine......................... Pinus radiata
redwood.............................. Sequoia sempervirens
Scots pine........................... Pinus sylvestris
Sitka spruce........................ Picea sitchensis
western red cedar.............. Thuja plicata

* Nomenclature follows Webb, Sykes, Garnock-Jones (1988)

 

Common and scientific names of other weeds listed in the schedule


 

alder..................................... Alnus viridus
apple.................................... Malus x domestica
ash....................................... Fraxinus excelsior
baccharis............................. Baccharis halimifolia
banana passionfruit............ Passiflora mollissima
barberry............................... Berberis glaucocarpa
blackberry............................ Rubus fruticosus agg.
blue gum.............................. Eucalyptus globulus
bone-seed........................... Chrysanthemoides monolifera
boxthorn............................... Lycium ferocissimum
broom.................................. Cytisus scoparius
browntop.............................. Agrostis capillaris
buddleia............................... Buddleja sp.
bugle.................................... Ajuga reptans
burdock................................ Arctium lappa
Californian thistle................ Cirsium arvense
Cape ivy.............................. Senecio angulatus
cherry................................... Prunus avium
cherry plum.......................... Prunus cerasifera
cherry laurel......................... Prunus laurocerasus
Chewings fescue................ Festuca rubra var. commutata
Chilean flame creeper....... Tropaeolum speciosum
climbing asparagus............ Asparagus scandens
climbing dock...................... Rumex sagittatus
coltsfoot............................... Tussilago farfara
columbine............................ Aquilegia vulgaris
cotoneaster......................... Cotoneaster sp.
crack willow......................... Salix fragilis
Darwin's barberry............... Berberis darwinii
elder (elderberry)................ Sambucus nigra
elm....................................... Ulmus X hollandica
everlasting pea................... Lathyrus latifolius
field chickweed................... Cerastium arvense
flowering currant................. Ribes sanguineum
German ivy.......................... Senecio mikanioides
ginger................................... Hedychium sp.
golden willow....................... Salix alba var. vitellina
gooseberry.......................... Ribes uva-crispa
gorse.................................... Ulex europaeus
great bindweed................... Calystegia silvatica
green alder.......................... Alnus viridis
grey willow........................... Salix cinerea
gum...................................... Eucalyptus sp.
haresfoot trefoil................... Trifolium arvense
hawthorn.............................. Crataegus monogyna
heath rush............................ Juncus squarrosus
heather................................. Calluna vulgaris
Himalayan honeysuckle..... Leycesteria formosa
holly...................................... Ilex aquifolium
hop....................................... Humulus lupulus
horehound........................... Marrubium vulgare
hydrangea........................... Hydrangea macrophylla
ice plant............................... Carpobrotus edulis
Italian jasmine..................... Jasminum humile
ivy......................................... Hedera helix
Japanese honeysuckle...... Lonicera japonica
Khasia berry........................ Cotoneaster simonsii
Lombardy poplar................ Populus nigra
lotus...................................... Lotus pedunculatus
lupin...................................... Lupinus sp.
marram grass..................... Ammophila arenaria
Mexican daisy..................... Erigeron karvinskianus
montbretia........................... Crocosmia crocosmiiflora
Montpellier broom.............. Teline monspessulana
nassella tussock................. Stipa trichotoma
oak....................................... Quercus robur
old man's beard.................. Clematis vitalba
osier..................................... Salix viminalis
oxeye daisy......................... Leucanthenum vulgare
pampas................................ Cortaderia sp.
pear...................................... Pyrus communis
pellitory-of-the-wall.............. Parietaria judaica
periwinkle............................ Vinca major
plum...................................... Prunus X domestica
pohutukawa......................... Metrosideros excelsa
poplar................................... Populus sp.
privet.................................... Ligustrum ovalifolium
pussy willow......................... Salix X reichardtii
ragwort................................. Senecio jacobaea
raspberry............................. Rubus idaeus
rowan................................... Sorbus aucuparia
Russell lupin........................ Lupinus polyphyllus
sandwort.............................. Arenaria serpyllifolia
selaginella........................... Selaginella sp.
silver birch........................... Betula pendula
sow thistle............................ Sonchus oleraceus
Spanish heath..................... Erica lusitanica
spindle tree.......................... Euonymus europaeus
stonecrop............................. Sedum acre
sweet brier........................... Rosa rubiginosa
sweet cherry........................ Prunus avium
sweet vernal........................ Anthoxanthum odoratum
sycamore............................. Acer pseudoplatanus
thyme.................................... Thymus vulgaris
thistle.................................... Cirsium sp.
Tradescantia....................... Tradescantia fluminensis
tree lupin.............................. Lupinus arboreus
tutsan.................................... Hypericum androsaemum
viper's bugloss.................... Echium vulgare
wallflower............................. Cheiranthus cheiri
walnut................................... Juglans regia
wattle.................................... Racosperma or Acacia sp.
wild mignonette................... Reseda luteola
willow.................................... Salix spp.


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