In the “Stewart Island/Rakiura Conservation Management Strategy and Rakiura National Park Management Plan 2011-2021

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Active management: Used with reference to a planned programme of work that is required to maintain the values of specific places or objects.

Aircraft: Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air otherwise than by the reactions of the air against the surface of the earth (Civil Aviation Act 1990).

Amenities area: Any area of a national park set aside for the development and operation of recreational and public amenities and related services appropriate for the public use and enjoyment of the national park (section 15, National Parks Act 1980).

Animal: Any mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian, fish (including shellfish) or related organism, insect, crustacean, or organism of every kind; but does not include a human being (section 2, Reserves Act 1977 and section 2, National Parks Act 1980).

Any member of the animal kingdom other than a human being (section 2, Conservation Act 1987).

Authorisation: Collective term for all types of approvals by the Minister and the Director-General of Conservation provided for in a statutory process.

Biodiversity: The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and ecological complexes of which they are part. This includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.

Biosecurity: The exclusion, eradication or effective management of risks posed by pests and diseases to the economy, environment and human health.

Building: Has the same meaning as given to it by sections 8 and 9 of the Building Act 2004.

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Commercial hunting: Means hunting undertaken by professional hunters for their livelihood and intended to maximise the take or kill of animals. It does not include guided recreational hunting, transportation of recreational hunters, or other means of assistance for recreational hunting for which a consideration is paid (General Policy for National Parks 2005).

Concession: A lease, licence, permit or easement, granted under Part IIIB of the Conservation Act 1987, to enable the carrying out of a trade, occupation or business on areas managed by the Department of Conservation.

Conservation: The preservation and protection of natural and historic resources for the purpose of maintaining their intrinsic values, providing for their appreciation and recreational enjoyment by the public, and safeguarding the options of future generations (section 2, Conservation Act 1987).

Conservation plan: A conservation plan is a standard management document prepared to guide conservation work on historical and cultural heritage.

Conservation Boards: Conservation boards are established under section 6L of the Conservation Act 1987. The primary functions and powers of conservation boards are set out in the Conservation Act 1987 and the National Parks Act 1980 (sections 6M and 6N, Conservation Act 1987 and section 30, National Parks Act 1980).

Conservation Management Strategy (CMS): A strategy which implements general policies and establishes objectives for the integrated management of natural and historic resources and for recreation, tourism and other conservation purposes. A CMS is reviewed every ten years (section 17D, Conservation Act 1987).

Consultation: An invitation to give advice, and the consideration of that advice. To achieve consultation, sufficient information must be supplied and sufficient time allowed by the consulting party to those consulted to enable them to tender helpful advice. It involves an ongoing dialogue. It does not necessarily mean acceptance of the other party’s view, but enables informed decision-making by having regard to those views.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): An international agreement on biological diversity that came into force in December 1993 following a meeting of governments in Rio de Janiero. The objectives of the Convention are: the conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources.

Cultural materials: For the purpose of this CMS, cultural materials are defined as:

  1. plants, plant materials;
  2. materials derived from animals, marine mammals or birds, to the extent to which the Department holds and is responsible for them, and which are important to Ngāi Tahu in maintaining their culture.

Cumulative effect: An effect which arises over time or in combination with other effects (section 3, Resource Management Act 1991).

Customary use: Gathering and use of natural resources by Tāngata whenua according to tikanga.

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Ecological integrity: The full potential of indigenous biotic and abiotic factors, and natural processes, functioning in sustainable habitats, ecosystems, and landscapes.

Ecosystem: A biological system comprising a community of living organisms and its associated non-living environment, interacting as an ecological unit.

Ecosystem services: A wide range of conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems, and the species that are part of them, help sustain and fulfill life.

Effect: Any positive or adverse effect; and any temporary or permanent effect; and any past, present or future effect; and any cumulative effect which arises over time or in combination with other effects regardless of the scale, intensity, duration, or frequency of the effect and also includes any potential effect of high probability; and any potential effect of low probability which has high potential impact (section 3, Resource Management Act 1991).

Encampment: Non-designated sites used for the purpose of shelter or camping on either:

  1. a permanent or semi-permanent basis by private individuals or groups; or
  2. for more than short-term use by individuals or groups.

Environment: Includes (a) ecosystems and their constituent parts, including people and communities; and (b) all natural and physical resources; and (c) amenity values; and (d) the social, economic, aesthetic and cultural conditions that affect those matters (Resource Management Act 1991).

Eradicate: To remove completely.

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Facilities: Facilities that enable people to enjoy a range of recreational opportunities including (but not limited to): visitor and information centres, camping areas, tracks and walkways, bridges, backcountry huts, roads, car-parking areas, toilets, picnic areas, signs and interpretation panels, viewing platforms, wharves and boat ramps.

Fire Officer: Person appointed as a Rural Fire Officer pursuant to the Forest and Rural Fires Act 1977.

Fish and Game Council: Statutory body with functions pertaining to the management, maintenance and enhancement of the sports fish and game resource in the recreational interests of anglers and hunters (section 26P, Conservation Act 1987).

Fishery: One or more stocks or parts of stocks or one or more species of freshwater fish or aquatic life that can be treated as a unit for the purposes of conservation or management (section 2, Conservation Act 1987).

Freshwater fish: Includes finfish of the Classes Agnatha and Osteichthytes, and shellfish of the Classes Mollusca and Crustacea, that must at any time in the life history of the species, inhabit freshwater; and includes finfish and shellfish that seasonally migrate into and out of freshwater (section 2, Conservation Act 1987).

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Game birds: The wildlife declared to be game specified in the First Schedule to the Wildlife Act 1953. As at the date of the adoption of these planning documents they are all birds, viz: black swan, Canada goose, chukar, grey duck, mallard duck, paradise shelduck, Australasian shoveler, partridge, red-legged partridge, pheasant, pukeko, Australian quail, Californian quail and Virginian quail.

Habitat: The environment within which a particular species or group of species lives. It includes the physical and biotic characteristics that are relevant to the species concerned.

Historical and cultural heritage: Any building or other structure, archaeological site, natural feature, wāhi tapu, or object, associated with people, traditions, events or ideas, which contribute to an understanding of New Zealand’s history and cultures.

Historic place: An “historic place” is defined in the Historic Places Act 1993 as “any land, site, building, or structure, or combination thereof, that forms part of the historical and cultural heritage of New Zealand, including anything fixed to such land”.

Historic resource: Means a historic place within the meaning of the Historic Places Act 1993; and includes any interest in a historic resource (section 2, Conservation Act 1987).

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Indigenous species: Refers to plants and animals that have established in New Zealand without the assistance of human beings and without the assistance of vehicles or aircraft. This includes species that are unique to New Zealand as well as those that may be found elsewhere in the world. Use of the words ‘indigenous’ and ‘native’ have the same meaning in this General Policy.

Information: Includes interpretation.

Integrated conservation management: The management of natural resources, and historical and cultural heritage, and existing or potential activities in a manner which ensures that priorities are clear and that the effects of each activity on others are considered and managed accordingly.

Intellectual property rights: Ownership of knowledge or vested interest in the ownership of knowledge.

Intrinsic value: A concept which regards the subject under consideration as having value or worth in its own right independent of any value placed on it by humans.

Introduced animals: Any member of the animal kingdom that is not a human being and that is not an “indigenous species” as defined by the Conservation General Policy.

Introduced plant: Any member of the plant kingdom that is not an “indigenous species” as defined by the Conservation General Policy.

Introduced species: Species other than indigenous species (General Policy for National Parks 2005).

Iwi: A Māori tribe or people. A group of several hapū with common ancestral links. Ngāi Tahu is the iwi in the Southland Conservancy Area.

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Kaitiakitanga: The exercise of guardianship by the Tāngata whenua of an area in accordance with tikanga. In relation to a resource this includes the ethic of stewardship based upon the nature of the resource itself.

Kaitiaki: Guardian.

Kaitiaki Rōpū: A committee comprising the four Papatipu Rūnanga (Te Rūnanga o Awarua, Te Rūnanga o Ōraka Aparima, Hokonui Rūnaka and Waihōpai Rūnaka) with which the Southland Conservancy meets with and consults with on a regular basis.

Mana: Prestige; authority.

Marine protected area: An area of sea especially dedicated to or achieving the protection and maintenance of biodiversity at the habitat or ecosystem level, and managed through legal or other effective means.

Marine reserve: A marine area constituted as a marine reserve under the Marine Reserves Act.

Mataitai: An identified traditional fishing ground established under regulation 23 of the Fisheries (Kaimoana Customary Fishing) Regulations 1998.

Mātauranga Māori: Māori traditional knowledge.

Mauri: Essential life force, the spiritual power and distinctiveness that enables each thing to exist as itself.

Mining: Means to take, win or extract by whatever means, a mineral existing in its natural state in land, or a chemical substance from that mineral, for the purpose of obtaining the mineral or chemical substance; but does not include prospecting or exploration; and “to mine” has a corresponding meaning (Crown Minerals Act 1991).

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National Park Management Plan: A national park management plan provides for the management of a national park in accordance with the National Parks Act 1980 (section 45(2), National Parks Act 1980).

National park values: The values outlined in section 4 of the National Parks Act 1980.

Natural: Existing in or produced by nature.

Natural character: The qualities of an area that are the result of natural processes and taken together give it a particular recognisable character. These qualities may be ecological, physical, spiritual or aesthetic in nature.

Natural quiet: Natural ambient conditions in a natural area; the sounds of nature.

Natural resources: Plants and animals of all kinds, and the air, water, and soil in or on which any plant or animal lives or may live, and landscape and landform, and geological features, and systems of interacting living organisms, and their environment, and includes any interest in a natural resource (section 2, Conservation Act 1987).

Natural state: Unmodified by human activity or introduced plants or animals.

New Zealand Biodiversity Strategy: A government-approved national strategy (2000) providing an integrated response to New Zealand’s declining indigenous biodiversity, prepared in part to meet a commitment under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

New Zealand Conservation Authority: A national body of 13 appointed members established under section 6A of the Conservation Act 1987. Amongst other functions, it has the statutory responsibility for approving General Policy for national parks, conservation management strategies and plans and national park management plans (section 6B, Conservation Act 1987 and section 18, National Parks Act 1980).

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Objective: A clear and specific end result sought in terms of its nature, extent, or scale.

Outcome: A goal or end result of a conservation action or series of actions. The outcome sets the foundation for how a place should be managed.

Papatipu Rūnanga: Papatipu Rūnanga are the modern day administrative councils and representations of Ngāi Tahu hapu and whanau who hold manawhenua over a particular area and its resources. The Rakiura CMS area lies within the rohe of Te Rūnanga o Awarua, Ōraka Aparima Rūnaka, Hokonui Rūnaka and Waihōpai Rūnaka.

Participation: The contribution of effort, information and ideas towards the work of the Department of Conservation.

Partnership: The relationship between individuals or groups that is characterised by mutual cooperation and responsibility for the achievement of a specific goal.

People and organisations: An inclusive phrase used to refer to all individuals, clubs, companies, councils and other organisations and groups, both public and private, with an interest in the policies of and actions undertaken by the Department of Conservation in relation to public conservation land and waters and species management.

Personal mobility device: A device designed to transport one person, that is propelled by hand or a propulsion system with a maximum speed of 15 km per hour, and is ridden by a disabled person.

Personal water craft (including, but not limited to, jet skis): Power-driven vessel that has a fully enclosed hull, does not retain water on board if it capsizes, and is designed to be operated by a person standing, sitting or kneeling on the vessel, but not seated within the vessel; and may include space for one or more passengers.

Pest: Any organism, including an animal, plant, pathogen or disease, capable or potentially capable of causing unwanted harm or posing significant risks to indigenous species, habitats and ecosystems or freshwater fisheries.

Place: An area identified in a CMS or plan for the purposes of integrated conservation management. It may include any combination of terrestrial, freshwater and marine areas and may be determined by a range of criteria including but not limited to: ecological districts, geological features, catchments, internal, regional or district council or rohe/takiwā boundaries, land status, major recreation or tourism destinations, commonality of management considerations, unique management needs.

Pounamu: New Zealand greenstone, as defined in the Ngāi Tahu (Pounamu Vesting) Act 1997.

Prescribed burning: The controlled application of fire, under specified conditions, to achieve a fire of required intensity and rate of spread to attain planned management objectives.

Policy: A statement of the way things will be done and in some situations what will be done; or the general approach to be take in future decision-making.

Pou whenua: Marker pole or post.

Preservation: In relation to a resource, means the maintenance, so far as is practicable, of its intrinsic values (section 2, Conservation Act 1987).

Principles of the Treaty of Waitangi: The principles of the Treaty of Waitangi identified from time to time by the Government of New Zealand.

Private accommodation: Place to live or lodge which is not available to the general public on an open basis.

Protected areas: Terrestrial, freshwater and marine areas that are protected primarily for the purpose of the conservation of natural resources and historical and cultural heritage, using a range of legal mechanisms that provide long-term security of tenure, status or land use purpose, either privately or publicly owned.

Protection: In relation to a resource, means its maintenance, so far as is practicable, in its current state; but includes:

  1. its restoration to some former state; and
  2. its augmentation, enhancement, or expansion (section 2, Conservation Act 1987).

Public conservation lands and waters: Lands and water areas administered by the Department of Conservation for whatever purpose, including the natural and historic resources of those areas covered by this CMS. Reserves administered by other agencies are not included in this definition.

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Recreational freshwater fisheries: Means any freshwater fisheries where the fishing of sports fish and indigenous freshwater fish is lawfully carried out for recreational purposes.

Reserve: Reserve has the meaning given to that term in the Reserves Act 1977 and includes the following reserves: recreation, historic, scenic, nature, scientific, government purpose, local purpose (section 2, Reserves Act 1977).

Restoration: The active intervention and management of modified or degraded habitats, ecosystems, landforms and landscapes in order to restore indigenous natural character, ecological and physical processes and their cultural and visual qualities; or for historic heritage, to return a place as nearly as possible to a known earlier state.

Road: Means:

  1. a road that is formed and maintained for vehicle use by the public;
  2. a route that is marked by the Department of Conservation for vehicle use by the public or identified in a CMS, conservation management plan, or a national park management plan for use by vehicles generally or for a particular type of vehicle (for example a bicycle) or as a vehicle parking area.

Rohe: Geographical territory of an iwi or hapū. Rakiura is within the rohe of the four Southland Papatipu Rūnanga: Te Rūnanga o Awarua, Te Rūnanga o Ōraka Aparima, Hokonui Rūnaka and Waihōpai Rūnaka.

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Site: A defined area within a wider place.

Southland Regional Council: The regional council for Southland operating under the brand name ‘Environment Southland’.

Species: A group of organisms which has evolved distinct common inheritable features and occupies a particular geographical range, and which is capable of interbreeding freely but not with members of other species.

Sports fish: Every species of freshwater fish that the Governor-General may declare to be sports fish for the purposes of the Conservation Act 1987; examples are trout and salmon.

Sports Fish and Game Management Plan Plan: approved by the Minister of Conservation under section 17M of the Conservation Act 1987.

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Takiwā: Place or territory used by or associated with an iwi, hapū or whanau. The Southland Conservancy where Rakiura is located falls entirely within the takiwā of Ngāi Tahu.

Tāngata whenua: Iwi or hapū that has customary authority in a place. In the context of Southland Conservancy, Ngāi Tahu Whānui is the name given to the collective of people who are recognised as being the Tāngata whenua of and as exercising rangatiratanga within the Ngāi Tahu takiwā (tribal area).

Taonga: Valued resources or prized possessions held by Māori, both material and non-material. It is a broad concept that includes tangible and intangible aspects of natural and historic resources of significance to Māori, including wāhi tapu and intellectual property.

Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu: The tribal council. The 18 papatipu rūnanga each have a member elected on to the tribal council. Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu is recognised in legislation as a corporate body with the authority to act on behalf of the iwi.

The Crown: Her Majesty the Queen acting through ministers and departments of state.

Tikanga: Māori custom, obligations and conditions.

Utilities: Includes but not limited to: structures and infrastructure for telecommunications; energy generation and transmission; sewerage; water supply and flood control; oil and gas; roads and airstrips; hydrological and weather stations.

Vehicle: Means any device that is powered by any propulsion system and moves on rollers, skids, tracks, wheels, or other means; and includes any device referred to previously from which the propulsion system has been removed; or the rollers, skids, tracks, wheels, or other means of movement have been removed; and does not include:

  1. a pushchair or pram;
  2. a child’s toy;
  3. a personal mobility device used by a disabled person.

Viability: The ability of a species or a community to persist over time.

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Wāhi tapu: Place sacred to Māori in the traditional, spiritual, religious, ritual or mythological sense (Historic Places Act 1993).

Wetlands: Permanent or intermittently wet areas, shallow water or land-water margins. They include swamps, bogs, estuaries, braided rivers, and lake margins.

Whakapapa: Recounting of genealogical lineage; genealogy.

Whanau: Family groups.

Wild animal: Has the meaning set out in the Wild Animal Control Act 1977 and includes: possums, deer, wallabies, thar, wild goats, wild pigs, and chamois (section 2, Wild Animal Control Act 1977).

Wilderness Area: Any area set aside as a Wilderness Area under the National Parks Act 1980, the Conservation Act 1987 or the Reserves Act 1977.

Wildlife: Any animal (as defined as in the Wildlife Act 1953) that is living in a wild state; and includes any such animal or egg or offspring of any such animal held or hatched or born in captivity, whether pursuant to an authority granted under the Wildlife Act 1953 or otherwise; but does not include wild animals subject to the Wild Animal Control Act 1977 (section 2, Wildlife Act 1953).

World Heritage Site: A site designated under the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) World Heritage Convention as being of outstanding universal value as a site of cultural or natural heritage.

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